Go straight to articles on non-pharmaceutical influenza prevention

Personal Hygiene Messages

 

  • Frequent hand washing
  • Always cough and sneeze into disposable tissues
  • Cough and sneeze into your elbow in the absence of tissues
  • Wash your hands with soap and water regularly
  • If you have influenza, stay away from crowded, public places, and wear a face mask when you see your doctor to stop the spread of disease
  • Don't shake hands with unwashed hands
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    Community mitigation strategies

    Markel et al JAMA. 2007;298(6):644-65: Evidence that these were effective in the 1918 -19 pandemic

  • Isolation of cases and close contacts
  • Social distancing by school, preschool, day care closures
  • Social distancing of adults by workplace avoidance, cancellation of gatherings
  •  

    Non Pharmaceutical Influenza Prevention

    May 2014 - May 2017

    Barasheed O. et al. Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial to Test Effectiveness of Facemasks in Preventing Influenza-Like Illness Transmission Among Australian Hajj Pilgrims in 2011. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2014 Oct 21.
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    Bessesen MT. et al. Disinfection of reusable elastomeric respirators by health care workers: A feasibility study and development of standard operating procedures. Am J Infect Control. 2015 Jun 1;43(6):629-34.
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    Chughtai AA. et al. Practices around the use of masks and respirators among hospital health care workers in 3 diverse populations. Am J Infect Control. 2015 Jul 13. pii: S0196-6553(15)00654-9.
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    Chughtai AA. et al. Compliance with the Use of Medical and Cloth Masks Among Healthcare Workers in Vietnam. Ann Occup Hyg. 2016 Mar 15. pii: mew008.
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    Liu M. et al. Protective Effect of Hand-Washing and Good Hygienic Habits Against Seasonal Influenza: A Case-Control Study. (China, CDC) Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Mar;95(11):e3046.
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    MacIntyre CR, Chughtai AA. Facemasks for the prevention of infection in healthcare and community settings. BMJ. 2015 Apr 9;350:h694.
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    MacIntyre CR. et al. Cluster randomised controlled trial to examine medical mask use as source control for people with respiratory illness. (Australia) BMJ Open. 2016 Dec 30;6(12):e012330.
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    MacIntyre CR. et al. A cluster randomised trial of cloth masks compared with medical masks in healthcare workers. BMJ Open. 2015 Apr 22;5(4):e006577.
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    MacIntyre CR. Efficacy of face masks and respirators in preventing upper respiratory tract bacterial colonization and co-infection in hospital healthcare workers. Prev Med. 2014 May;62:1-7.
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    Martinez DL, Das TK. Design of non-pharmaceutical intervention strategies for pandemic influenza outbreaks. BMC Public Health. 2014 Dec 29;14(1):1328.
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    Mateus AL. et al.
    Effectiveness of travel restrictions in the rapid containment of human influenza: a systematic review. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Dec 1;92(12):868-880D.
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    Mukerji S, MacIntyre CR, Newall AT. Review of economic evaluations of mask and respirator use for protection against respiratory infection transmission. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 13;15:413.
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    Núria Torner et al. Effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical measures in preventing pediatric influenza: a case–control study BMC Public Health 2015, 15:543 June 2015
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    Odo NU. et al. Personal Protective Equipment Use and Hand Washing among Animal Farmers: A Multi-Site Assessment. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2015 Jan 27:0.
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    Pillai SK. et al. Clinician Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding Use of Respiratory Protective Devices and Surgical Masks for Influenza. Health Secur. 2015 Jul 14.
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    Smith JD. et al. Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. CMAJ. 2016 Mar 7. pii: cmaj.150835.
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    Smith SM. et al. Use of non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce the transmission of influenza in adults: A systematic review. Respirology. 2015 Apr 14.
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    Siu JY. Qualitative study on the shifting sociocultural meanings of the facemask in Hong Kong since the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak: implications for infection control in the post-SARS era. Int J Equity Health. 2016 May 4;15(1):73.
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    Tang JW. et al. Absence of Detectable Influenza RNA Transmitted via Aerosol during Various Human Respiratory Activities - Experiments from Singapore and Hong Kong. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 10;9(9):e107338.
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    Uchida M. et al. Effectiveness of vaccination and wearing masks on seasonal influenza in Matsumoto City, Japan, in the 2014/2015 season: An observational study among all elementary schoolchildren. Prev Med Rep. 2016 Dec 6;5:86-91.
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    Wu S. et al. Hygiene Behaviors Associated with Influenza-Like Illness among Adults in Beijing, China: A Large, Population-Based Survey. PLoS One. 2016 Feb 3;11(2):e0148448.
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    Wong VW, Cowling BJ, Aiello AE. Hand hygiene and risk of influenza virus infections in the community: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 May;142(5):922-32.
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    Zayas G. et al. Effectiveness of cough etiquette maneuvers in disrupting the chain of transmission of infectious respiratory diseases. BMC Public Health. 2013 Sep 8;13:811.
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