Go straight to H7N9 avian influenza articles

The A(H7N9) virus

Influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. The influenza A(H7N9) virus is one subgroup among the larger group of H7 viruses. Although some H7 viruses (H7N2, H7N3 and H7N7) have occasionally been found to infect humans, no human infections with H7N9 viruses have been reported until March 2013, when three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus.

Developing a vaccine

There is currently no vaccine for the prevention of avian influenza A(H7N9) infections although at least four biopharmaceutical companies have candidates that are being tested in animal and human trials. (Wu YL, Shen L-W, Ding Y-P). Preliminary success in the characterization and management of a sudden breakout of a novel H7N9 influenza A virus. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 2014, volume 10, number 1, pages 109-118. Full text : Bart SA. et al. A Cell Culture–Derived MF59-Adjuvanted Pandemic A/H7N9 Vaccine Is Immunogenic in Adults. Sci Transl Med 30 April 2014: Vol. 6, Issue 234, p. 234ra55
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General Resources


Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus

Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Response:An Investment in Public Health Preparedness

Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP)

Avian influenza

Weekly avian influenza report

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention


Weekly updates

Frequently asked questions

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Dr Ian M Mackay

Virology Down Under

Influenza Specialist Group, Australia

H7N9 Summary


January 2018

Artois J. et al. Changing Geographic Patterns and Risk Factors for Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Infections in Humans, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018 Jan;24(1):87-94.
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Han DD. et al. Epidemiology of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, 2013-2017. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2018 Jan 10;39(1):44-46. [Article in Chinese; Abstract available in Chinese from the publisher]

Teng Y. et al. Contact reductions from live poultry market closures limit the epidemic of human infections with H7N9 influenza. J Infect. 2018 Jan 31. pii: S0163-4453(18)30023-9.

Virlogeux V. et al. Evaluation of animal-to-human and human-to-human transmission of influenza A (H7N9) virus in China, 2013-15. Sci Rep. 2018 Jan 11;8(1):552.
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Wan H. et al. Comparison of the Efficacy of N9 Neuraminidase-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies against Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection. J Virol. 2018 Jan 30;92(4).
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Wang L. et al. Design and application of bundle treatment plan in the early stage for severe human infection by avian influenza H7N9. [Article in Chinese] Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2018 Jan;30(1):24-28.


H7N9 Avian Influenza Biography April 2014 - December 2017

H7N9 Avian Influenza Bibliography April 2013 - April 2014