H7N9

The A(H7N9) virus

Influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. The influenza A(H7N9) virus is one subgroup among the larger group of H7 viruses. Although some H7 viruses (H7N2, H7N3 and H7N7) have occasionally been found to infect humans, no human infections with H7N9 viruses have been reported until March 2013, when three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus.

Developing a vaccine

There is currently no vaccine for the prevention of avian influenza A(H7N9) infections although at least four biopharmaceutical companies have candidates that are being tested in animal and human trials. (Wu YL, Shen L-W, Ding Y-P. Preliminary success in the characterization and management of a sudden breakout of a novel H7N9 influenza A virus. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 2014, volume 10, number 1, pages 109-118. Full text )

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****General Resources****

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WHO Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus

This webpage lists up-to-date information on the developing H7N9 situation. It includes updates on human infection caused by the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, numbers of confirmed human cases reported to the WHO, technical guidance and frequently asked questions.

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Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Response:An Investment in Public Health Preparedness

WHO 2013

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Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP)

Avian influenza

Weekly avian influenza report

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Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

H7N9

Weekly updates

Frequently asked questions

Research highlights

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Dr Ian M Mackay Avian influenza A virus H7N9...

Virology Down Under, University of Queensland, Australia

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H7N9 Summary

Influenza Specialist Group, Australia

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****Recent Journal Articles****

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Chan KH. et al. Assessment of antigen and molecular tests in serial specimens from a patient with influenza A (H7N9) infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]

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Chen Z. et al. Development of a high yield live attenuated H7N9 influenza vaccine that provides protection against homologous and heterologous H7 wild-type viruses in ferrets. Journal of Virology 9 April 2014

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Ding H. et al. Epidemiologic characterization of 30 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Hangzhou, China. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 31;14(1):175.

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Feng F. et al. Association of Radiologic Findings with Mortality in Patients with Avian Influenza H7N9 Pneumonia. PLOS ONE Published: April 04, 2014

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Fuller T. et al. Identifying areas with a high risk of human infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in East Asia. J Infect 2014 (published online Mar 15)

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Ji H. et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics and risk factors for death of patients with avian influenza A H7N9 virus infection from Jiangsu Province, Eastern China. PLoS One 2014 Mar 4;9(3):e89581

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Kalthoff D. et al. Nucleic acid-based detection of influenza A virus subtypes H7 and N9 with a special emphasis on the avian H7N9 virus. Euro Surveill. 2014 Mar 13;19(10). pii: 20731.

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Ling F. et al. Hypothesis on the source, transmission and characteristics of infection of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus — based on analysis of field epidemiological investigation and gene sequence analysis. Zoonoses Public Health 2014 (published online Mar 13)

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Linster M. et al. Identification, Characterization, and Natural Selection of Mutations Driving Airborne Transmission of A/H5N1 Virus. Cell Vol 157(2), p329–339, 10 April 2014

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Liu J. et al. H7N9: a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infecting humans. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Apr 2;5C:91-97.

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Lu S. et al. Prognosis of 18 H7N9 Avian Influenza Patients in Shanghai. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 2;9(4):e88728.

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Pawar SD. et al. Immunity Status Against Influenza A Subtype H7N9 and Other Avian Influenza Viruses in a High-Risk Group and the General Population in India. J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]

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Peng J. et al. The Origin of Novel Avian Influenza A (H7N9) and Mutation Dynamics for Its Human-To-Human Transmissible Capacity. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 26;9(3):e93094.

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Vong S, O'Leary M, Feng Z. Early response to the emergence of influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans in China: the central role of prompt information sharing and public communication. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Apr 1;92(4):303-8.

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Wu P. et al. Responses to threat of influenza A(H7N9) and support for live poultry markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online Feb 25)

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Zhu G, Peterson AT. Potential Geographic Distribution of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 1;9(4):e93390.

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H7N9 Journal Articles

April 2013 - April 2014

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Abdelwhab EM, Veits J, Mettenleiter TC. Prevalence and control of H7 avian influenza viruses in birds and humans. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Jan 15:1-25. [Epub ahead of print]
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Ai J. et al. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with influenza A(H7N9) virus in Jiangsu Province, China, 2013. Eurosurveillance, Volume 18, Issue 26, 27 June 2013
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Alcorn T. China's H7N9 outbreak slows but experts remain wary. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Early Online Publication, 17 May 2013
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Baas C.et al. A comparison of rapid point-of-care tests for the detection of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, 2013. Euro Surveill Eurosurveillance, Volume 18, Issue 21, 23 May 2013
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Belser J.A. and Tumpey T.M. Tropism of H7N9 influenza viruses in the human respiratory tract. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Early Online Publication, 25 July 2013
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Boni M.F. et al. Population-level antibody estimates to novel influenza A/H7N9. Journal of Infectious Diseases published online 17 May 2013
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Chan KH. et al. Assessment of antigen and molecular tests in serial specimens from a patient with influenza A (H7N9) infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]
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Chan M.C.W. et al. Tropism and innate host responses of a novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus: an analysis of ex-vivo and in-vitro cultures of the human respiratory tract. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Early Online Publication, 25 July 2013
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Chang S-Y. et al. The first case of H7N9 influenza in Taiwan Lancet 29 April 2013
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Chen G-W. et al. Is avian influenza A (H7N9) virus staggering its way to humans? Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 05 June 2013
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Chen X. et al. Clinical Features and Factors Associated with Outcomes of Patients Infected with a Novel Influenza A (H7N9) Virus: A Preliminary Study. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73362. September 17, 2013
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Chen Z. et al. Development of a high yield live attenuated H7N9 influenza vaccine that provides protection against homologous and heterologous H7 wild-type viruses in ferrets. Journal of Virology 9 April 2014
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Chi U. et al. Cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with the novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China. J Infect Dis 2013 Published online Aug 29
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Chowell G. et al. Transmission potential of influenza A/H7N9. February to May 2013, China. BMC Medicine 2013 (published online Oct 2)
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Corman V. et al. Specific detection by real-time reverse-transcription PCR assays of a novel avian influenza A(H7N9) strain associated with human spillover infections in China. Euro Surveill. 2013 Apr 18;18(16). pii: 20461.
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Cowling B.J.et al. Comparative epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A H7N9 and H5N1 viruses in China: a population-based study of laboratory-confirmed cases. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 24 June 2013
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Cowling B.J. et al. Preliminary inferences on the age-specific seriousness of human disease caused by avian influenza A(H7N9) infections in China, March to April 2013. Eurosurveillance, Volume 18, Issue 19, 09 May 2013
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Ding H. et al. Epidemiologic characterization of 30 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Hangzhou, China. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 31;14(1):175.
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Dudley J.P. and Mackay I.M.
Age-Specific and Sex-Specific Morbidity and Mortality from Avian Influenza A(H7N9). Journal of Clinical Virology Available online 12 September 2013
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Evans G.A. Interim Guidance for Antiviral Prophylaxis and Treatment of Influenza Illness due to Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus. AMMI Canada Released: May 27, 2013
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Feng F. et al. Association of Radiologic Findings with Mortality in Patients with Avian Influenza H7N9 Pneumonia. PLOS ONE Published: April 04, 2014
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Feng Y. et al.
Origin and characteristics of internal genes affect infectivity of the novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus. PLoS One 2013 (published online Nov 22)
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Fouchier R.A.M.et al. Avian flu: Gain-of-function experiments on H7N9. Nature 500, 150–151 (08 August 2013)
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Freeman G. and Cowling B.J. Serological Responses Following Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection. J Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 17. [Epub ahead of print]
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Fries LF, Smith GE, Glenn GM. A recombinant viruslike particle influenza A (H7N9) vaccine. N Engl J Med. 2013 Dec 26;369(26):2564-6. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1313186
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Fuller T. et al. Identifying areas with a high risk of human infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in East Asia. J Infect 2014 (published online Mar 15)
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Gao H.-N. et al.
Clinical findings in 111 cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection. N Engl J Med, published online May 22
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Gao R. et al. Human Infection with a Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]
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Ge Y. et al. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus by Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Lateral-Flow Device. PLoS ONE 8(8): August 1, 2013
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Goodwin R. and Sun S. Early responses to H7N9 in southern Mainland China. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 7;14(1):8. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-14-8.
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Goodwin R. and Sun S. Public perceptions and reactions to H7N9 in Mainland China. Journal of Infection, published online 08 July 2013.
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Gu H. et al. Importance of Internet Surveillance in Public Health Emergency Control and Prevention: Evidence From a Digital Epidemiologic Study During Avian Influenza A H7N9 Outbreaks. J Med Internet Res. 2014 Jan 17;16(1):e20.
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Guan Y. et al. H7N9 Incident, immune status, the elderly and a warning of an influenza pandemic. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2013 Apr 17;7(4):302-7.
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Guo L. et al. Human Antibody Responses to Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;20(2):192-200.
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Hackett H. et al. Screening for H7N9 influenza A by matrix gene-based real-time reverse-transcription PCR.J Virol Methods 2013 (published online Oct 14)
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Hai R. et al. Influenza A(H7N9) virus gains neuraminidase inhibitor resistance without loss of in vivo virulence or transmissibility. Nature Communications 4, Article number: 2854
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Han J. et al. Epidemiological link between exposure to poultry and all influenza A(H7N9) confirmed cases in Huzhou city, China, March to May 2013. Eurosurveillance, Volume 18, Issue 20, 16 May 2013
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Han J. et al. Clinical presentation and sequence analyses of HA and NA antigens of the novel H7N9 viruses. Emerging Microbes and Infections (2013) 2, e23
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Harada N. et al. Avian influenza A(H7N9): information-sharing through government web sites in the Western Pacific Region. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal, 4(2).
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Hatchette T.F. et al. Detection of Influenza H7N9: All Molecular Tests are Not Equal. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 21 August 2013
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He F. et al. Development of dual-function ELISA for effective antigen and antibody detection against H7 avian influenza virus. BMC Microbiol. 2013 Oct 2;13(1):219. [Epub ahead of print]
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He Y., et al. The first patient recovered from avian influenza A H7N9 viral infection: A case report and review of the literature. Respiratory Medicine Case Reports 31 July 2013 Volume 10, 2013, Pages 23–26
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Hongjie Yu et al. Effect of closure of live poultry markets on poultry-to-person transmission of avian influenza A H7N9 virus: an ecological study. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 31 October 2013
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Hu Y. Association between adverse clinical outcome in human disease caused by novel influenza A H7N9 virus and sustained viral shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance. The Lancet Volume 381, Issue 9885, Pages 2273 - 2279, 29 June 2013
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Huakun LV. et al. Mild illness in avian influenza A(H7N9) virus–infected poultry worker, Huzhou, China, April 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2013 Nov
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Huang Y. et al. Probable longer incubation period for human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Jiangsu Province, China, 2013. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Feb 24:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]
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Hvistendahl M. Influenza. Despite large research effort, H7N9 continues to baffle. Science. 2013 Apr 26;340(6131):414-5.
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Ip D.K.M et al. Detection of mild to moderate influenza A/H7N9 infection by China’s national sentinel surveillance system for influenza-like illness: case series.BMJ 2013; 346 Published 24 June 2013
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Jaffe H.W., Patterson, A.P., Lurie N. Avian flu: Extra oversight for H7N9 experiments. Nature 500, 151 (08 August 2013)
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Ji H. et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics and risk factors for death of patients with avian influenza A H7N9 virus infection from Jiangsu Province, Eastern China. PLoS One 2014 Mar 4;9(3):e89581
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Jones J.C. et al.
Possible Role of Songbirds and Parakeets in Transmission of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus to Humans. Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 20, Number 3—March 2014
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Josset L. et al.
Transcriptomic characterization of the novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus: specific host response and responses intermediate between avian (H5N1 and H7N7) and human (H3N2) viruses and implications for treatment options. MBio. 2014 Feb 4;5(1):e01102-13.
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Kageyama T. et al. Genetic analysis of novel avian A(H7N9) influenza viruses isolated from patients in China, February to April 2013. Euro Surveill. 2013 Apr 11;18(15). pii: 20453.
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Kahn R.E. and Richt J.A. The Novel H7N9 Influenza A Virus: Its Present Impact and Indeterminate Future. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 30 April 2013
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Kalthoff D. et al. Nucleic acid-based detection of influenza A virus subtypes H7 and N9 with a special emphasis on the avian H7N9 virus. Euro Surveill. 2014 Mar 13;19(10). pii: 20731.

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Ke Y. et al.
Deaths Associated with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China. Ann Intern Med. Published online 4 June 2013
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Kai-Wang To K. et al. Unique reassortant of influenza a(H7N9) virus associated with severe disease emerging in Hong Kong.
J Infect. 2014 Feb 24. pii: S0163-4453(14)00049-8.

Knepper J. et al. mBio The novel human influenza A(H7N9) virus is naturally adapted to efficient growth in human lung tissue. 2013 Oct 8;4(5):e00601-13
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Krammer F, Cox RJ. The emergence of H7N9 viruses: a chance to redefine correlates of protection for influenza virus vaccines. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2013 Oct 25. [Epub ahead of print]
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Lai K.Y.et al. Human H7N9 avian influenza virus infection: a review and pandemic risk assessment. Emerging Microbes and Infections (2013) 2, Published online 7 August 2013
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Lam T.T. et al. The genesis and source of the H7N9 influenza viruses causing human infections in China. Nature 21 August 2013
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Lebarbenchon C., Justin D. Brown, and David E. Stallknecht Evolution of Influenza A Virus H7 and N9 Subtypes, Eastern Asia. Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 19, Number 10—October 2013
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Lee RT. et al. A new piece in the puzzle of the novel avian-origin influenza a (H7N9) virus. Biol Direct. 2013 Oct 26;8(1):26. [Epub ahead of print]
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Lee S.S., Wong N.S., Leung C.C. Exposure to avian influenza H7N9 in farms and wet markets. The Lancet 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60949-6, 10 May 2013
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Li Q. et al. Epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China. N Engl J Med. 2014 Feb 6;370(6):520-32.
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Li T. et al. Attitudes, practices and information needs regarding novel influenza A (H7N9) among employees of food production and operation in Guangzhou, Southern China: a cross-sectional study.BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Jan 2;14(1):4.
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Lin P.H. et al. Virological, Serological, and Antiviral Studies in an Imported Human Case of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Taiwan. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jan;58(2):242-6.
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Ling F. et al. Hypothesis on the source, transmission and characteristics of infection of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus — based on analysis of field epidemiological investigation and gene sequence analysis. Zoonoses Public Health 2014 (published online Mar 13)
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Linster M. et al.
Identification, Characterization, and Natural Selection of Mutations Driving Airborne Transmission of A/H5N1 Virus. Cell Vol 157(2), p329–339, 10 April 2014
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Liu J. et al.
H7N9: a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infecting humans. Curr Opin Virol. 2014 Apr 2;5C:91-97.
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Liu S. et al.
Epidemiological, clinical and viral characteristics of fatal cases of human avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Zhejiang Province, China. J Infect. 2013 Dec;67(6):595-605.
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Liu T. et al. One family cluster of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in Shandong, China. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Feb 21;14(1):98. [Epub ahead of print]
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Liu W. et al. Risk assessment on the epidemics of human infection with a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Jiangsu Province, China. J Biomed Res 16 May 2013
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Liu W. et al. Spatial and temporal analysis of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, 2013. Euro Surveill 2013 Nov 21;18(47):pii=20640
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Lo Y.C. et al. Surveillance of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in humans and detection of the first imported human case in Taiwan, 3 April to 10 May 2013. Eurosurveillance, Volume 18, Issue 20, 16 May 2013
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Lu L, He B., Jiang S. The Outbreak of Avian Influenza A (H7N9) in China: Current Status and Future Prospects. Biomed J 2013 Jun 17;36:96-7.
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Lu S. et al. Clinical Findings for Early Human Cases of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection, Shanghai, China. Emerging Infectious Diseases published online May 3
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Lu S. et al. Prognosis of 18 H7N9 Avian Influenza Patients in Shanghai. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 2;9(4):e88728.
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Lu S.H. et al.
Analysis of the clinical characteristics and treatment of two patients with avian influenza virus (H7N9). Biosci Trends. 2013 Apr;7(2):109-12.
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Lui D. et al. Origin and diversity of novel avian influenza A H7N9 viruses causing human infection: phylogenetic, structural, and coalescent analyses. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 1 May 2013 doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60938-1
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Meng Z. et al. Possible pandemic threat from new reassortment of influenza A(H7N9) virus in China. Euro Surveill. 2014 Feb 13;19(6). pii: 20699.
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Mok C.K. et al. Amino-acid substitutions in polymerase basic protein 2 gene contributes to the pathogenicity of the novel A/H7N9 influenza virus in mammalian hosts. J Virol. 2014 Jan 8. [Epub ahead of print]
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Morens D.M. et al. H7N9 avian influenza and the perpetual challenge of potential human pandemicity. mBio DOI: 10.1128/mBio.00445-13 (2013).Published 9 July.
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Osterholm, M.T., Ballering K.S., Kelley N.S. Major Challenges in Providing an Effective and Timely Pandemic Vaccine for Influenza A(H7N9). JAMA. 2013;():1-2. Published online May 9, 2013
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Pantin-Jackwood M.J. et al. Role of poultry in spread of novel H7N9 influenza virus in China. Journal of Virology Published ahead of print 26 February 2014
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Pavia A.T. Influenza A (H7N9): from anxiety to preparedness. Ann Intern Med published online May 14
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Pawar SD. et al. Immunity Status Against Influenza A Subtype H7N9 and Other Avian Influenza Viruses in a High-Risk Group and the General Population in India. J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar 11. [Epub ahead of print]
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Peng J. et al.
The Origin of Novel Avian Influenza A (H7N9) and Mutation Dynamics for Its Human-To-Human Transmissible Capacity. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 26;9(3):e93094.
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Pepin K.M. et al.
Minimizing the threat of pandemic emergence from avian influenza in poultry systems. BMC Infect Dis. 2013 Dec 16;13:592. doi: 10.1186/1471-2334-13-592.
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Qi X. et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection in Pregnant Woman, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;20(2).
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Qi X. et al. Probable person to person transmission of novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Eastern China, 2013: epidemiological investigation. BMJ 2013;347 (early online release)
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Qi Y. et al. A novel pyrosequencing assay for the detection of neuraminidase inhibitor resistance-conferring mutations among clinical isolates of avian H7N9 influenza virus. Virus Res. 2014 Jan 22;179:119-24. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2013.10.026.
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Qiu C. et al. Epidemiologic report and serologic findings for household contacts of three cases of influenza A (H7N9) virus infection. J Clin Virol. 2014 Feb;59(2):129-31.

Quiñones-Parra S. et al. Preexisting CD8+ T-cell immunity to the H7N9 influenza A virus varies across ethnicities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 21;111(3):1049-54. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1322229111. Epub 2014 Jan 6.
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Ren X. et al. Full genome of influenza A (H7N9) virus derived by direct sequencing without culture. Emerg Infect Dis 2013 Nov
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Richard M. et al. Limited airborne transmission of H7N9 influenza A virus between ferrets. Nature Published online 07 August 2013
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Rimmelzwaan G.F., Fouchier G.A.M., Osterhaus A. Age distribution of cases caused by different influenza viruses. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Volume 13, Issue 8, Pages 646 - 647, August 2013
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Rudenko L, Isakova-Sivak I, Rekstin A. H7N9: can H7N3 live-attenuated influenza vaccine be used at the early stage of the pandemic? Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014 Jan;13(1):1-4. doi: 10.1586/14760584.2014.864564.
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Rudge J.W. and Coker R. Human to human transmission of H7N9. BMJ 2013; 347 (Published 6 August 2013)
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Salathé M. et al. Influenza A (H7N9) and the Importance of Digital Epidemiology. N Engl J Med 2013; 369:401-404 August 1, 2013
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Shi J. et al. A Detailed Epidemiological and Clinical Description of 6 Human Cases of Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Infection in Shanghai. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 15;8(10):e77651.
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Shi J-Z. et al. Isolation and characterization of H7N9 viruses from live poultry markets—Implication of the source of current H7N9 infection in humans. Chinese Science Bulletin 27 April 2013
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Shi Y. et al. Structures and Receptor Binding of Hemagglutinins from Human-Infecting H7N9 Influenza Viruses. Science Published Online September 5 2013
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Shuo Su et al. Detection of antibodies against avian influenza virus subtypes H7 and H9 among veterinarians in Guangdong province, China. Journal of Clinical Microbiology Published ahead of print 18 September 2013,
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Siegers JY, Short KR, Leijten ME, et al. Novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus attachment to the respiratory tract of five animal models J Virol 2014 (published online Jan 29)
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Sleeman K. et al. R292K Substitution and Drug Susceptibility of Influenza A(H7N9) Viruses. Emerging Infectious Diseases Volume 19, Number 9—September 2013
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Song F.X. et al. Bedside chest radiography of novel influenza A (H7N9) virus infections and follow-up findings after short-time treatment. Chin Med J (Engl). 2013 Dec;126(23):4440-3.
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Song R. et al. Surveillance of the first case of human avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Beijing, China. Infection. 2014 Feb;42(1):127-33.
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Stein RA. H7N9 influenza and beyond: international political frameworks. Int J Clin Pract. 2014 Feb;68(2):142-3.


Sun Y, Lu H. Discovery process, clinical characteristics, and treatment of patients infected with avian influenza virus (H7N9) in Shanghai. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014 Jan;127(1):185-6.
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Tang R-B. and Chen H-L. An overview of the recent outbreaks of the avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in the human. Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 4 May 2013
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Uyeki TM, Cox NJ. Global Concerns Regarding Novel Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Infections. N Engl J Med. 2013 Apr 11. [Epub ahead of print]
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van Riel D. et al. Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Attaches to Epithelium in Both Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract of Humans. Am J Pathol. 2013 Oct;183(4):1137-43.
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Vong S, O'Leary M, Feng Z. Early response to the emergence of influenza A(H7N9) virus in humans in China: the central role of prompt information sharing and public communication. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Apr 1;92(4):303-8.
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Wang C, Yu H, Horby PW, et al. Comparison of patients hospitalized with influenza A H7N9, H5N1, and 2009 pandemic H1N1 and 2009 pandemic H1N1. Clin Infect Dis 2014 (published online Jan 31)
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Wang L et al. Geographic co-distribution of influenza virus subtypes H7N9 and H5N1 in humans, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2013
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Wang Q. et al. Emerging H7N9 Influenza A (Novel Reassortant Avian-Origin) Pneumonia: Radiologic Findings. Radiology Published online before print July 2, 2013
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Wang Z. et al. Early hypercytokinemia is associated with interferon-induced transmembrane protein-3 dysfunction and predictive of fatal H7N9 infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jan 14;111(2):769-74. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1321748111.
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Wiwanitkit V. H7N9 influenza: The emerging infectious disease. North American Journal of Medical Sciences 2013 Volume : 5 Issue : 7 Page : 395-398
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Wong C.K.S. et al. Molecular Detection of Human H7N9 Influenza A Virus Causing Outbreaks in China. Clinical Chemistry 10 May 2013
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Wu A. et al. Sequential reassortments underlie diverse influenza H7N9 genotypes in China. Cell Host Microbe 2013 Published online Sep 19
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Wu C. et al. Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Screening in Patients with Fever and Flu-Like Symptoms in a Tertiary Hospital in an Area with Confirmed Cases.PLoS One. 2013 Dec 18;8(12):e82613. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082613
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Wu H-S., Chuang J-H., Chang F-Y. Taiwan faces challenges on the emerging avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in China. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 05 June 2013
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Wu P. et al. Responses to Threat of Influenza A(H7N9) and Support for Live Poultry Markets, Hong Kong, 2013 Emerging Infectious Diseases 20(5) – May 2014
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Wu S, Wu F. Emerging risk of H7N9 influenza in China. Lancet. 2013 Apr 18. pii: S0140-6736(13)60767-9.
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Wu Y. and Gao G.F. Compiling of comprehensive data of human infections with novel influenza A (H7N9) virus. Frontiers of Medicine July 2013
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