H7N9 Avian Influenza

Go straight to H7N9 avian influenza articles

The A(H7N9) virus

Influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. The influenza A(H7N9) virus is one subgroup among the larger group of H7 viruses. Although some H7 viruses (H7N2, H7N3 and H7N7) have occasionally been found to infect humans, no human infections with H7N9 viruses have been reported until March 2013, when three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus.

Developing a vaccine

There is currently no vaccine for the prevention of avian influenza A(H7N9) infections although at least four biopharmaceutical companies have candidates that are being tested in animal and human trials. (Wu YL, Shen L-W, Ding Y-P. Preliminary success in the characterization and management of a sudden breakout of a novel H7N9 influenza A virus. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 2014, volume 10, number 1, pages 109-118. Full text : Bart SA. et al. A Cell Culture–Derived MF59-Adjuvanted Pandemic A/H7N9 Vaccine Is Immunogenic in Adults. Sci Transl Med 30 April 2014: Vol. 6, Issue 234, p. 234ra55
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****General Resources****

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WHO Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus

This webpage lists up-to-date information on the developing H7N9 situation. It includes updates on human infection caused by the avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, numbers of confirmed human cases reported to the WHO, technical guidance and frequently asked questions.

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Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Response:An Investment in Public Health Preparedness

WHO 2013

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Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP)

Avian influenza

Weekly avian influenza report

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Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

H7N9

Weekly updates

Frequently asked questions

Research highlights

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Dr Ian M Mackay Avian influenza A virus H7N9...

Virology Down Under, University of Queensland, Australia

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H7N9 Summary

Influenza Specialist Group, Australia

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****Recent Journal Articles****

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Dai J. et al. Human infection with a novel avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus: serial chest radiographic and CT findings. Chin Med J (Engl). 2014 Jun;127(12):2206-11.
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Dong L. et al.
A Combination of Serological Assays to Detect Human Antibodies to the Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus. (China) PLoS One. 2014 Apr 22;9(4):e95612.

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Duan Y. et al.
Response of mice and ferrets to a monovalent influenza A (H7N9) split vaccine. PLoS One 2014 Jun 17;9(6):e99322

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Gao GF.
Influenza and the live poultry trade. Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):235.


Gao R. et al.
Ultrastructural characterization of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infecting humans in China. Virol Sin. 2014 Apr;29(2):119-22.


Gilbert M. et al.
Predicting the risk of avian influenza A H7N9 infection in live-poultry markets across Asia. Nat Commun. 2014 Jun 17;5:4116.

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Han J. et al.
Cocirculation of three hemagglutinin and two neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses in Huzhou, China, April 2013: implication for the origin of the novel H7N9 virus. J Virol. 2014 Jun;88(11):6506-11.

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He Y. et al.
Live poultry market closure and control of avian influenza A(H7N9), Shanghai, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online Jun 10)

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Hu J et al.
Limited human-to-human transmission of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, Shanghai, China, March to April 2013. Euro Surveill 2014 Jun 26;19(25):pii=20838

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Kang X. et al.
Detection of Avian influenza A/H7N9/2013 virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction. J Virol Methods. 2014 May 28. pii: S0166-0934(14)00128-1.
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Khazeni N. et al. Health and Economic Benefits of Early Vaccination and Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for a Human Influenza A (H7N9) Pandemic: A Modeling Study. Ann Intern Med. 2014 May 20;160(10):684-94.
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Krammer F. et al.
An H7N1 influenza virus vaccine induces broadly reactive antibody responses against H7N9 in humans. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Jun 18. pii: CVI.00272-14.

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Krammer F. et al.
Divergent H7 Immunogens Offer Protection from H7N9 Virus Challenge. J Virol. 2014 Apr;88(8):3976-85.

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Lin ZQ. et al.
Chest X-ray and CT findings of early H7N9 avian influenza cases. (China) Acta Radiol. 2014 Jun 10. pii: 0284185114535209

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Liu B. et al.
Risk factors for influenza A(H7N9) disease — China, 2013. Clin Infect Dis 2014 (published online Jun 13)

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Liu C. et al.
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as rescue therapy for H7N9 influenza-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chin Med J 2014 May;127(9):1798.

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Liu D, Gao GF.
The new emerging H7N9 influenza virus indicates poultry as new mixing vessels. Sci China Life Sci. 2014 Jun 7.
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Lu J. et al.
Genetic changes of reemerged influenza A(H7N9) viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online May 23)
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Mao H. et al.
Conservation of T cell epitopes between seasonal influenza viruses and the novel influenza A H7N9 virus. Virol Sin. 2014 Jun;29(3):170-5.
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Pantin-Jackwood MJ.
et al.
Role of poultry in the spread of novel H7N9 influenza virus in China. J Virol. 2014 May;88(10):5381-90.
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Qiao JG. et al.
Management of the First Confirmed Case of Avian Influenza A H7N9. Respir Care. 2014 Apr;59(4):e43-6.
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Shen Y, Lu H.
Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai: current status and future trends. Chin Med J. 2014 May;127(10):1973-6.
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Su S. et al.
Virological and Epidemiological Evidence of Avian Influenza Virus Infections Among Feral Dogs in Live Poultry Markets, China: A Threat to Human Health? Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print]
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Sun J. et al.
Comparison of Characteristics between Patients with H7N9 Living in Rural and Urban Areas of Zhejiang Province, China: A Preliminary Report. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 7;9(4):e93775.
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To KK1, Chan JF, Yuen KY.
Viral lung infections: epidemiology, virology, clinical features, and management of avian influenza A(H7N9). Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2014 May;20(3):225-32.
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Wang C. et al.
Novel human H7N9 influenza virus in China.Integr Zool. 2014 Jun;9(3):372-5.
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Wang D. et al. Genetic tuning of the novel avian influenza A(H7N9) virus during interspecies transmission, China, 2013. Euro Surveill 2014 Jun 26;19(25):pii=20836
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Wang L. et al. Human exposure to live poultry and psychological and behavioral responses to influenza A(H7N9), China. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online May 28)
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Wang W. et al.
PCR for detection of oseltamivir resistance mutation in influenza A(H7N9) virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 May;20(5):847-9.

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Wang W. et al.
Serologic assay for avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in adults of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Yunnan, China. J Clin Virol 2014 (published online Apr 13)

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Wang X. et al. Seroprevalence to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus among poultry workers and the general population in southern China: a longitudinal study. Clin Infect Dis 2014 (published online May 27)
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Wang YR, Li JM, Wang XF.
Clinical and epidemiological analysis of the first case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Shenzhen, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Jun 18. pii: S1201-9712(14)01532-X.

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Wiwanitkit V.
H7N9 influenza in autumn. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Jun;42(6):695.

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Wu CY. et al.
Squalene-adjuvanted H7N9 virus vaccine induces robust humoral immune response against H7N9 and H7N7 viruses. Vaccine. 2014 Jun 21. pii: S0264-410X(14)00844-5.

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Wu P. et al.
Responses to threat of influenza A(H7N9) and support for live poultry markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 May;20(5):882-6.

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Xiao XC. et al.
Transmission of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus from father to child: a report of limited person-to-person transmission, Guangzhou, China, January 2014. Euro Surveill 2014 Jun 26;19(25):pii=20837

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Xie T. et al.
Correlation between reported human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus and cyber user awareness: what can we learn from digital epidemiology? Int J Infect Dis. 2014 May;22:1-3.
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Zhang J. et al.
Determination of original infection source of H7N9 avian influenza by dynamical model. Sci Rep. 2014 May 2;4:4846.

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Zhang J, Zhao Y, Chen Y. Laboratory findings in patients with avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus infections. J Med Virol. 2014 May;86(5):895-8.
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Zhang Y. et al. Isolation and characterization of H7N9 avian influenza A virus from humans with respiratory diseases in Zhejiang, China. Virus Res. 2014 May 24. pii: S0168-1702(14)00183-X.
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Zhu G, Peterson AT.
Potential Geographic Distribution of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 1;9(4):e93390.

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H7N9 Journal Articles

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H7N9 Avian Influenza Bibliography April 2013 - April 2014