Go straight to H7N9 avian influenza articles

The A(H7N9) virus

Influenza A H7 viruses are a group of influenza viruses that normally circulate among birds. The influenza A(H7N9) virus is one subgroup among the larger group of H7 viruses. Although some H7 viruses (H7N2, H7N3 and H7N7) have occasionally been found to infect humans, no human infections with H7N9 viruses have been reported until March 2013, when three urban residents of Shanghai or Anhui, China, presented with rapidly progressing lower respiratory tract infections and were found to be infected with a novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus.

Developing a vaccine

There is currently no vaccine for the prevention of avian influenza A(H7N9) infections although at least four biopharmaceutical companies have candidates that are being tested in animal and human trials. (Wu YL, Shen L-W, Ding Y-P. Preliminary success in the characterization and management of a sudden breakout of a novel H7N9 influenza A virus. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 2014, volume 10, number 1, pages 109-118. Full text : Bart SA. et al. A Cell Culture–Derived MF59-Adjuvanted Pandemic A/H7N9 Vaccine Is Immunogenic in Adults. Sci Transl Med 30 April 2014: Vol. 6, Issue 234, p. 234ra55
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General Resources

WHO

Avian influenza A(H7N9) virus

Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Response:An Investment in Public Health Preparedness

Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection (CHP)

Avian influenza

Weekly avian influenza report

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention

H7N9

Weekly updates

Frequently asked questions

Research highlights

Dr Ian M Mackay

Virology Down Under

Influenza Specialist Group, Australia

H7N9 Summary

 

Recent Journal Articles

Liu X. et al. Evaluation of Plasma Exchange and Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration for the Treatment of Severe Avian Influenza A (H7N9): A Cohort Study. Ther Apher Dial. 2015 Apr;19(2):178-84.
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Zhang W. et al. Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;21(4):715-8.
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April 2014 -  April 2015

Cao RY. et al. Inhibition of novel reassortant avian influenza H7N9 virus infection in vitro with three antiviral drugs, oseltamivir, peramivir and favipiravir. Antivir Chem Chemother. 2014 Dec 16;23(6):237-40.
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Carter DM. et al. Cross-protection against H7N9 influenza strains using a live-attenuated H7N3 virus vaccine. Vaccine. 2014 Nov 18. pii: S0264-410X(14)01532-1.
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Chen F. et al. Isolation and characteristic analysis of a novel strain H7N9 of avian influenza virus A from a patient with influenza-like symptoms in China. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Jan 19. pii: S1201-9712(15)00018-1.
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Chen Y. et al.
Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Identifying Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Clinical Samples. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Jan;21(1).
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Chen Y, Wen Y. Global dynamic analysis of a H7N9 avian-human influenza model in an outbreak region. J Theor Biol. 2014 Dec 11;367C:180-188.
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Chen Z. et al. Detection of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus from Live Poultry Markets in Guangzhou, China: A Surveillance Report. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 12;9(9):e107266.
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Chen Z, Liu H, Lu J, et al. Asymptomatic, mild, and severe influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in humans, Guangzhou, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online Aug 14)
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Cheng VC. et al. Infection Control Preparedness for Human Infection With Influenza A H7N9 in Hong Kong. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2015 Jan;36(1):87-92.
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Chua BY, Brown LE, Jackson DC. Considerations for the rapid deployment of vaccines against H7N9 influenza. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2014 Nov;13(11):1327-37
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Ding H. et al. A family cluster of three confirmed cases infected with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Zhejiang Province of China. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 31;14(1):3846.
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Dong L. et al. A Combination of Serological Assays to Detect Human Antibodies to the Avian Influenza A H7N9 Virus. (China) PLoS One. 2014 Apr 22;9(4):e95612.
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Fan J. et al. Detection of a novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in humans by multiplex one-step real-time RT-PCR assay. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 8;14(1):541.
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Fan M. et al. Human Influenza A(H7N9) Virus Infection Associated with Poultry Farm, Northeastern China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;20(11):1902-5.
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Feng L. et al. Clinical severity of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, China, 2013/14. Euro Surveill. 2014 Dec 11;19(49). pii: 20984.
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Fuller T. et al. Identifying areas with a high risk of human infection with the avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in East Asia. J Infect. 2014 Aug;69(2):174-81.
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Gao GF. Influenza and the live poultry trade. Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):235.

Gao R. et al. Ultrastructural characterization of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infecting humans in China. Virol Sin. 2014 Apr;29(2):119-22.

Gravel C. et al. Development and applications of universal H7 subtype-specific antibodies for the analysis of influenza H7N9 vaccines. Vaccine. 2015 Jan 22. pii: S0264-410X(15)00053-5.
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Gu H. et al. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Among Mobile Phone Users: A Survey in Zhejiang Province, China. JMIR 2015 Feb 4;3(1):e15.
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Han J. et al. Transient cardiac injury during H7N9 infection. Eur J Clin Invest. 2015 Feb;45(2):117-25. 10.
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He Y. et al. Live Poultry Market Closure and Control of Avian Influenza A(H7N9), Shanghai, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Sep;20(9):1565-6.
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Henry Dunand CJ. et al. Preexisting human antibodies neutralize recently emerged H7N9 influenza strains. J Clin Invest. 2015 Feb 17. pii: 74374.
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Hu W. et al. Weather variability and influenza A (H7N9) transmission in Shanghai, China: A Bayesian spatial analysis. Environ Res. 2014 Nov 25;136C:405-412.
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Husain M. Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus infection in humans: Epidemiology, evolution, and pathogenesis. Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Dec;28C:304-312.
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Jernigan DB1, Cox NJ. H7N9: Preparing for the Unexpected in Influenza. Annu Rev Med. 2015 Jan 14;66:361-71.
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Jin W. et al. Three Cases of Avian-origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus Infection in Zhejiang Province, China: Case Report and Literature Review. Intern Med. 2014;53(20):2397-400.
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Kang X. et al. Detection of Avian influenza A/H7N9/2013 virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction. J Virol Methods. 2014 May 28. pii: S0166-0934(14)00128-1.
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Ke C. et al. Circulation of reassortant influenza A(H7N9) viruses in poultry and humans, Guangdong province, China, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis 2014
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Khan SU. et al. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Seroprevalence of Influenza A (H9N2) Virus Infection Among Humans. J Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 23. pii: jiv109.
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Khazeni N. et al. Health and Economic Benefits of Early Vaccination and Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for a Human Influenza A (H7N9) Pandemic: A Modeling Study. Ann Intern Med. 2014 May 20;160(10):684-94.
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Krammer F. et al. An H7N1 Influenza Virus Vaccine Induces Broadly Reactive Antibody Responses against H7N9 in Humans. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Aug;21(8):1153-63.
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Krammer F. et al. Divergent H7 Immunogens Offer Protection from H7N9 Virus Challenge. J Virol. 2014 Apr;88(8):3976-85.
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Lam TT. et al. Dissemination, divergence and establishment of H7N9 influenza viruses in China. Nature. 2015 Mar 11
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Li J. et al. Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai, China, 2013. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Dec 4:1-7.
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Liao Q. et al. Public risk perception and attitudes towards live poultry markets before and after their closure due to influenza A(H7N9), Hong Kong, January-February 2014.J Public Health (Oxf). 2015 Feb 25. pii: fdv020.
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Liao Q. et al. Population Behavior Patterns in Response to the Risk of Influenza A(H7N9) in Hong Kong, December 2013-February 2014. Int J Behav Med. 2015 Jan 27.
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Liu B. et al. Risk Factors for Influenza A(H7N9) Disease-China, 2013. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Sep 15;59(6):787-94.
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Liu C. et al. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as rescue therapy for H7N9 influenza-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chin Med J 2014 May;127(9):1798.
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Liu X. et al. Evaluation of Plasma Exchange and Continuous Veno-Venous Hemofiltration for the Treatment of Severe Avian Influenza A (H7N9): A Cohort Study. Ther Apher Dial. 2015 Apr;19(2):178-84.
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Lu J. et al. Genetic changes of reemerged influenza A(H7N9) viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online May 23)
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Ma X. et al. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to influenza A(H7N9) risk among live poultry traders in Guangzhou City, China. BMC Infect Dis. 2014 Oct 18;14(1):554.
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Mao C. et al. An Internet-Based Epidemiological Investigation of the Outbreak of H7N9 Avian Influenza A in China Since Early 2013. J Med Internet Res. 2014 Sep 25;16(9):e221.
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Morrison J, Katze MG. Gene expression signatures as a therapeutic target for severe H7N9 influenza - what do we know so far? Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2015 Jan 20:1-4.
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Mulligan MJ. et al. Serological responses to an avian influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed at the point-of-use with MF59 adjuvant: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014 Oct 8;312(14):1409-19.
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Nailwal H1, Kamra K, Lal SK. H7N9: A killer in the making or a false alarm? Can J Microbiol. 2014 Jul;60(7):425-9.
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Pantin-Jackwood MJ. et al. Role of poultry in the spread of novel H7N9 influenza virus in China. J Virol. 2014 May;88(10):5381-90.
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Qiao JG. et al. Management of the First Confirmed Case of Avian Influenza A H7N9. Respir Care. 2014 Apr;59(4):e43-6.
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Shen Y, Lu H. Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in Shanghai: current status and future trends. Chin Med J. 2014 May;127(10):1973-6.
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Si Y. et al. Entry Properties and Entry Inhibitors of a Human H7N9 Influenza Virus. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 15;9(9):e107235.
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Su S. et al. Virological and Epidemiological Evidence of Avian Influenza Virus Infections Among Feral Dogs in Live Poultry Markets, China: A Threat to Human Health? Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Apr 4. [Epub ahead of print]
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Sun J. et al. Comparison of Characteristics between Patients with H7N9 Living in Rural and Urban Areas of Zhejiang Province, China: A Preliminary Report. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 7;9(4):e93775.
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Takayama I. et al. Development of a diagnostic system for novel influenza A(H7N9) virus using real-time RT-PCR assay in Japan. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2014 Nov 25.
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Tan KX. et al. An overview of the characteristics of the novel avian influenza A H7N9 virus in humans. Front Microbiol. 2015 Mar 5;6:140.
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To KK, Chan JF, Yuen KY. Viral lung infections: epidemiology, virology, clinical features, and management of avian influenza A(H7N9). Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2014 May;20(3):225-32.
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Wang L. et al. Human exposure to live poultry and psychological and behavioral responses to influenza A(H7N9), China. Emerg Infect Dis 2014 (published online May 28)
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Wang W. et al. PCR for detection of oseltamivir resistance mutation in influenza A(H7N9) virus. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 May;20(5):847-9.
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Wang W. et al. Serologic assay for avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in adults of Shanghai, Guangzhou and Yunnan, China. J Clin Virol 2014 (published online Apr 13)
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Wang X. et al. Seroprevalence to avian influenza A(H7N9) virus among poultry workers and the general population in southern China: a longitudinal study. Clin Infect Dis 2014 (published online May 27)
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Wang XY. et al. Epidemiology of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in the two waves before and after October 2013 in Zhejiang province, China. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Oct 7:1-7.
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Wang YR, Li JM, Wang XF. Clinical and epidemiological analysis of the first case of human infection with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus in Shenzhen, China. Int J Infect Dis. 2014 Aug;25:177-9.
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Watanabe T. et al. Pandemic potential of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses. Trends Microbiol. 2014 Nov;22(11):623-631.
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Wu D. et al. Poultry farms as a source of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus reassortment and human infection. Sci Rep. 2015 Jan 15;5:7630.
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Wu J. et al. Serologic screenings for H7N9 from three sources among high-risk groups in the early stage of H7N9 circulation in Guangdong Province, China. Virol J. 2014 Oct 23;11(1):184.
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Wu P. et al. Poultry Market Closures and Human Infection with Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2013-14. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Nov;20(11):1891-4.
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Wu P. et al. Responses to threat of influenza A(H7N9) and support for live poultry markets, Hong Kong, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 May;20(5):882-6.
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Xiao YY. et al. Prognosis and survival of 128 patients with severe avian influenza A(H7N9) infection in Zhejiang province, China. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Oct 31:1-6.
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Xie T. et al. Correlation between reported human infection with avian influenza A H7N9 virus and cyber user awareness: what can we learn from digital epidemiology? Int J Infect Dis. 2014 May;22:1-3.
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Yang JR. et al. Characterization of Influenza A (H7N9) Viruses Isolated from Human Cases Imported into Taiwan. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 6;10(3):e0119792.
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Yang Y. et al. Household transmissibility of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, China, February to May 2013 and October 2013 to March 2014. Euro Surveill. 2015 Mar 12;20(10). pii: 21056.
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Yang Y. et al. Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) in Critically Ill Patients in China. Crit Care Med. 2015 Feb;43(2):339-45
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Yang ZF. et al.
Clinical, Virological and Immunological Features from Patients Infected with Re-Emergent Avian-Origin Human H7N9 Influenza Disease of Varying Severity in Guangdong Province. PLoS One. 2015 Feb 27;10(2):e0117846.
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Yi L. et al. Family Clusters of Avian Influenza A H7N9 Infection in Guangdong Province, China. J Clin Microbiol. 2014 Oct 22. pii: JCM.02322-14.
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Yin X. et al. Antibodies against influenza A (H7N9) virus among veterinarians in China before 2013. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2015 Jan;9(1):38-9.
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Yuan J. et al. Attitudinal changes toward control measures in live poultry markets among the general public and live poultry traders, Guangzhou, China, January-February, 2014. Am J Infect Control. 2014 Dec;42(12):1322-4.
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Zeng X. et al. Mild influenza A/H7N9 infection among children in Guangdong Province. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014 (published online Jul 25)
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Zhang J. et al. Determination of original infection source of H7N9 avian influenza by dynamical model. Sci Rep. 2014 May 2;4:4846.
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Zhang J, Chen Y. Patients infected with avian influenza A H7N9 virus have abnormally low thyroid hormone levels. Clin Lab. 2014;60(7):1241-3.
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Zhang J, Zhao Y, Chen Y. Laboratory findings in patients with avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus infections. J Med Virol. 2014 May;86(5):895-8.
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Zhang W. et al. Co-infection with Avian (H7N9) and Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Influenza Viruses, China. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015 Apr;21(4):715-8.
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Zhang Y. et al. The impact of temperature and humidity measures on influenza A (H7N9) outbreaks-evidence from China. Int J Infect Dis. 2015 Jan;30:122-4.
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Zhang Y. et al.
Cluster of Human Infections with Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Cases: A Temporal and Spatial Analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Jan 15;12(1):816-28.
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Zhang Y. et al. Isolation and characterization of H7N9 avian influenza A virus from humans with respiratory diseases in Zhejiang, China. Virus Res. 2014 May 24. pii: S0168-1702(14)00183-X.
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Zhu G, Peterson AT. Potential Geographic Distribution of the Novel Avian-Origin Influenza A (H7N9) Virus. PLoS One. 2014 Apr 1;9(4):e93390.
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H7N9 Avian Influenza Bibliography April 2013 - April 2014